Running stake pools and delegation for exchanges

Many exchanges are eager to participate in either running a stake pool or delegating their stake to existing pools.

This information is intended for exchanges and exchange developers who have already successfully migrated from the Byron pre-hard fork era to the Shelley post-hard fork era and answers some of the most frequently asked questions regarding this process, including how to get started, and current limitations.

Exchanges will need to use the Shelley mainnet as a production environment to get the latest features of the Cardano blockchain. This integration is made possible by using cardano-wallet, cardano-node, and cardano-cli, which provide the communication point for exchanges. As an exchange, you will need to start your Cardano node, have a Shelley wallet with funds, and select a stake pool before you start the process of stake delegation.

Note: cardano-sl is deprecated and will not function after the Shelley hard fork. Exchanges or third-party wallets using cardano-sl should move to a Shelley-supported version of Cardano, such as the recently released cardano-node.

Cardano wallet and node binaries

Download the binaries for the cardano-wallet:

Download the binaries for the cardano-node:

Building a node

As an exchange, you have several options to build a node:

In addition, you need to understand the configuration files. You can find the latest supported networks here. After successfully running a Cardano node, you will need to create a Shelley wallet and add funds to it.

Note: Please check the latest node release.

Delegating Stake

Before delegating, you will need to use a Shelley era wallet and set up your own iteration of the Cardano wallet by either using docker, docker-compose, building from source, or downloading release binaries.

To participate in delegation of stake, every exchange must have the following types of address keys:

  • Payment key - a single address key pair for generating UtxO addresses.
  • Staking key - a stake/reward address key pair for generating account/reward addresses to participate in the process of stake delegation.

The main steps for delegating stake are:

  • Create the stake keys
  • Create the payment keys
  • Register the stake address on the blockchain
  • Create and submit the stake delegation certificate

These steps are outlined in detail in the following sections.

1. Creating stake keys

The exchange needs to create stake keys to generate the delegate's reward addresses for collecting stake rewards.

First, you need to create the relevant payment and stake keys, and the related addresses for the delegate. The payment address is then used to pay for the transaction that sends the registration certificate to the chain.

cardano-cli stake-address key-gen \
--verification-key-file stake.vkey \
--signing-key-file stake.skey

Build the stake address:

cardano-cli stake-address build \
--staking-verification-key-file stake.vkey
--out-file stake.addr

2. Creating payment keys

To generate a delegate's payment addresses you need to create payment keys. This is required for payments that are used to participate in stake delegation, and also for depositing funds:

cardano-cli address key-gen \
--verification-key-file pay.vkey \
--signing-key-file pay.skey

Build the payment address:

cardano-cli address build \
--payment-verification-key-file pay.vkey \
--staking-verification-key-file stake.vkey
--out-file pay.addr

3. Registering the stake address on the blockchain

Next, register the stake address on the blockchain with a key deposit, which is required for participation in stake delegation. First, you will need to generate the stake address registration certificate using the stake verification key:

cardano-cli stake-address registration-certificate \
--staking-verification-key-file stake.vkey \
--out-file stake.cert

Any stake key registration certificate needs a deposit for the costs of tracking the key and the corresponding reward account. Also, it does not require any witness to register the certificate, but only the witness for the fees from the input of the transaction.

Register the delegate's staking key on the blockchain with a simple transaction using any payment address:

# Get param files
export CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH=/opt/cardano/fnf/sockets/node0.socket
cardano-cli query protocol-parameters \
--mainnet \
--out-file params.json
# Build
cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--tx-in "$INPUT" \
--tx-out "${FROM}+${CHANGE}" \
--tx-out "${TO}+${AMOUNT}" \
--ttl $(expr $(CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH=/opt/cardano/fnf/sockets/node0.socket ./cardano-cli query tip --mainnet | jq ".slotNo" --raw-output) + 20000) \ --fee "$FEE" \
--tx-body-file stake-cert-tx
# Sign
cardano-cli transaction sign \
--tx-body-file stake-cert-tx \
--signing-key-file /opt/cardano/fnf/addresses/genesis.skey \
--signing-key-file stake.skey \
--tx-file stake-cert-tx \
# Submit
STAKE_ADDR=$( cut -c 9- stake.addr )
# Before
export CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH=/opt/cardano/fnf/sockets/node0.socket
cardano-cli query ledger-state --mainnet | grep "$STAKE_ADDR"
cardano-cli transaction submit \
--tx-file signed-stake-key-registration.tx \
cardano-cli query ledger-state --mainnet 42 | grep "$STAKE_ADDR"
# Ready to delegate now.

4. Creating and submitting the stake delegation certificate

Create and submit the stake delegation certificate per address for the selected pool. Note that 100% of the address’s ada will be delegated to the pool that you select):

cardano-cli stake-address delegation-certificate \
--staking-verification-key-file stake.vkey \
--stake-pool-verification-key-file ~/cold-keys/pool.vkey \
--out-file pool-delegation.cert
# Build
cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--tx-in "$INPUT" \
--tx-out "$OUTPUT" \
--ttl 500000 \
--fee "$FEE" \
--tx-body-file pool-delegation.tx \
--certificate pool-delegation.cert
# Sign
cardano-cli transaction sign \
--tx-body-file pool-delegation.tx \
--signing-key-file stake.skey \
--signing-key-file pay.skey \
--mainnet \
--tx-file signed-pool-delegation.tx
# Submit
cardano-cli transaction submit \
--tx-file signed-pool-delegation.tx \

Current limitations

You can not perform delegation from multiple addresses in the Cardano wallet. Once you decide to perform delegation, you agree to delegate 100% of your current stake in that wallet.

To split your stake delegation, you will need to split ada holdings through submitting different transactions to different wallet addresses, and then delegating these addresses individually. The other option is to apply the concept of staking as a service where you move all the funds to one or multiple hot wallets and then perform the stake delegation.

In other words, it is not currently possible to delegate ada from a single address or wallet to multiple pools. For example, ada held in cold storage using a single address could only be delegated to a single staking pool. As an exchange would typically have large amounts of ada at any given time, staking the entirety of its ada to a single stake pool would likely cause pool saturation.

Note: If you delegate a huge amount of ada (around 100 million ada or greater), you will not get the maximum rewards due to pool oversaturation—as the stake pool will have more stake delegated to it than is ideal for the network. To solve this issue, you can run multiple hot or cold wallets for delegation as discussed above, or you can use multiple addresses to delegate to multiple pools.

Setting up a stake pool

You may also want to establish your own stake pool, or multiple stake pools, and delegate stake to your own pools. For this, you would set the stake pool fees to 100%—essentially creating a private pool. To start a stake pool you need to go through the following steps:

  1. Get binaries on your server.
  2. Setup both the block-producing and relay nodes.
  3. Configure the firewall.
  4. Create keys.
  5. Generate the operational certificate.
  6. Start the nodes.

Setting up block-producing and relay nodes

As stake pool operator, you will have to run two types of nodes, with each node on a separate server:

  • Block producing nodes.
  • Relay nodes.

The stake pool must have at least one block-producing node connected to at least one relay node that is controlled by the stake pool operator. In addition, your stake pool should respect the minimum requirements.

Setting up the configuration files

Creating folders

Create two separate folders—“block-producing” and “relay”—for each node and copy the configuration files to their directories as explained above.

Modifying the topology configuration file

Modify the block-producer's mainnet-topology.json file to talk only to the relay node:

"Producers": [
"addr": " or put your public IP",
"port": 3001,
"valency": 2

Modify the relay's mainnet-topology.json file to talk to the block-producer and an external node:

"Producers": [
"addr": "put your public IP"
"port": 3000,
"valency": 1
"addr": "",
"port": 3001,
"valency": 1

Configuring the firewall

Configure the firewall for your nodes:

  • Login only with SSH keys
  • Setup SSH connections on a different port than the default port “22”
  • Allow connections only from your relay nodes by adding their IP addresses.
  • Open only the necessary ports for the relay nodes.

Creating keys

On the cardano-node directory:

  • Generate a payment key pair (usually for generating UtxO addresses):
cardano-cli address key-gen \
--verification-key-file payment.vkey \
--signing-key-file payment.skey
  • Generate the KES Key pair:
cardano-cli node key-gen-KES \
--verification-key-file kes.vkey \
--signing-key-file kes.skey
  • Generate VRF Key pair
cardano-cli node key-gen-VRF \
--verification-key-file vrf.vkey \
--signing-key-file vrf.skey
  • Generate Cold Keys and a Cold_counter file:
cardano-cli node key-gen \
--cold-verification-key-file cold.vkey \
--cold-signing-key-file cold.skey \

Generating the operational certificate

This certificate is needed for operating a node as a stake pool. First, you need to get the slots per KES period from the genesis file:

cat mainnet-shelley-genesis.json | grep KESPeriod

Now, you can generate the operational certificate:

cardano-cli node issue-op-cert \
--kes-verification-key-file kes.vkey \
--cold-signing-key-file cold.skey \
--operational-certificate-issue-counter coldcounter \
--kes-period 120 \
--out-file opcert

Delegation for stake pool owners

As a pool owner, you must create a stake delegation certificate for delegating at least a pledge amount of stake from the owner's staking key specified in the pool certificate. Also, you will need to understand how a transaction is created, signed and submitted to the blockchain by checking the transaction docs.

In short, the owner is delegating the funds to the pool he/she owns, The following certificate delegates funds from all stake addresses associated with key stake.vkey to the pool.vkey.

cardano-cli stake-address delegation-certificate \
--staking-verification-key-file staking.vkey \
--stake-pool-verification-key-file ~/cold-keys/pool.vkey \
--out-file owner-delegation.cert

Starting both nodes

Start block-producing node and relay node on any port but be aware that both nodes must run on different ports, the port 3000 and 3001 are used in the following example:

cardano-node run \
--topology block-producing/mainet-topology.json \
--database-path block-producing/db \
--socket-path block-producing/db/node.socket \
--host-addr "your public IP" \
--port 3000 \
--config block-producing/mainnet-config.json

Start relay node:

cardano-node run \
--topology relay/mainet-topology.json \
--database-path relay/db \
--socket-path relay/db/node.socket \
--host-addr "your public IP" \
--port 3001 \
--config relay/mainnet-config.json

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