Producing New Blocks

The goal of blockchain technology is the production of an independently-verifiable and cryptographically-linked chain of records (blocks). A network of block producers works to collectively advance the blockchain. A consensus protocol provides transparency and decides which candidate blocks should be used to extend the chain.

Submitted valid transactions might be included in any new block. A block is cryptographically signed by its producer and linked to the previous block in the chain. This makes it impossible to delete transactions from a block, alter the order of the blocks, remove a block from the chain (if it already has a number of other blocks following it), or to insert a new block into the chain without alerting all the network participants. This ensures the integrity and transparency of the blockchain expansion.

Slots and Epochs

The Cardano blockchain uses the Ouroboros Praos protocol to facilitate consensus on the chain. Ouroboros Praos divides time into epochs. Each Cardano epoch consists of a number of slots, where each slot lasts for one second. A Cardano epoch currently includes 432,000 slots (5 days). In any slot, zero or more block-producing nodes might be nominated to be the slot leader. On average, one node is expected to be nominated every 20 seconds, for a total of 21,600 nominations per epoch. If randomly elected slot leaders produce blocks, one of them will be added to the chain. Other candidate blocks will be discarded.

Slot Leader Election

The Cardano network consists of a number of stake pools that control the aggregated stake of their owners and other delegators, also known as stakeholders. Slot leaders are elected randomly from among the stake pools. The more stake the pool controls, the greater the chance it has of being elected as a slot leader to produce a new block that is accepted into the blockchain. This is the concept of proof-of-stake (PoS).

Transaction Validation

When validating a transaction, a slot leader needs to ensure that the sender has included enough funds to pay for that transaction and must also ensure that the transaction’s parameters are met. Assuming that the transaction meets all these requirements, the slot leader will record it as a part of a new block, which will then be connected to other blocks in the chain.