About the Ledger model

Cardano, like any other blockchain, is a distributed ledger or database that records all transactions and blocks created on the chain. This database shares records across all participants and synchronizes continuously with blockchain activities to provide transparent and up-to-date information for anyone to access.

Cardano DB Sync fetches such blockchain records and allows users to query transaction and block details using CLI commands. For more convenient and user-friendly data exploration, you can use the Cardano Explorer – a graphical user interface that presents details in a simple way.

A block producer validates each transaction before it is submitted to a block. The sender must have sufficient funds, so there is no double-spending, and all the nodes across the ledger must reach consensus.

Let’s take a closer look at how this worked within the Shelley ledger and how Plutus scripts change this process to support multi-asset transactions and smart contracts.

Transaction validation using Shelley native scripts

Cardano operates based on the unspent transaction output (UTXO) accounting model. This process means it uses transaction inputs and outputs as records to track fund transfers, ownership, and balances. Users’ funds are stored as unspent transaction outputs, each of which has a quantity that can be spent. Inputs are unspent outputs from previous transactions. As soon as an output is used as input in a transaction, it becomes spent and can never be used again. The output is specified by:

  • an address: that contains a payment credential and an optional stake credential, either a public/verification key hash or a script hash. Technically, the stake credential can also be a pointer to the registration certificate.
  • a value: reflects the actual ada amount that can be spent.

A transaction must be signed by the owner of the private key (also referred to as the signing key), which corresponds to the payment credential included in the address.

Cardano Shelley supported ada transactions solely. However, the Shelley formal specification introduced the concept of multi-signature (multisig) scripts, which, native by their nature, are captured entirely by ledger rules. This multisig scheme allowed an unspent transaction output to be used as an input to a new transaction if a predefined combination of signatures was provided. For example, if two individuals have to sign the transaction simultaneously, two out of three keys have to be provided, etc.

Multisig is a very simple language, and it allows working with such four constructors as RequireSignature, RequireAllOf, RequireAnyOf, and RequireMOf. However, as more functionality is added to the ledger, scripts should be extended to support additional terms for expressing a range of other conditions.

Upgrading multisig to Plutus Core

With the introduction of multi-asset support and smart contracts on Cardano, extending the basic multisig scripting language with more advanced options is essential. Having integrated Alonzo rules into the ledger (which signifies the addition of smart contract capabilities to Cardano), we have added the necessary tools and infrastructure, as well as support for a new scripting language – Plutus Core.

To upgrade multisig to Plutus Core, the Alonzo ledger implements the extended unspent transaction output (EUTXO) accounting model, using Plutus Core to provide powerful scripting capabilities.

EUTXO extends the UTXO model by allowing output addresses to contain complex logic to decide which transactions can be used to unlock them and by adding custom data to all outputs. To achieve this, scripts require a definite, well-specified scripting language, and data should be attached to outputs, which will be passed to the script during execution. Plutus Core enables such complex script execution by nodes during transaction validation while ‘live’ on the chain. They will either lock UTXOs in the form of validator scripts, or as minting policies, which control the minting and burning of native tokens. Redeemer data is then specified as a simple (algebraic) data type that can be defined easily in Haskell. In practice, a smart contract developer will write validator scripts in Haskell, which will then be automatically compiled into Plutus Core.

Appropriate Haskell libraries simplify writing such validation logic by providing core data types for the inspection of transactions during validation. These also offer many helper functions and higher-level abstractions, allowing contract authors to concentrate on business logic without worrying about too many low-level details.

© IOHK 2015 - 2021


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