6. Key Evolving Signature and KES period

To create an operational certificate for a block-producing node, you need a KES key pair.

Here “KES” stands for Key Evolving Signature, which means that after a certain period, the key will evolve to a new key and discard its old version. This is useful, because it means that even if an attacker compromises the key and gets access to the signing key, he can only use that to sign blocks from now on, but not blocks dating from earlier periods, making it impossible for the attacker to rewrite history.

A KES key can only evolve for a certain number of periods and becomes useless afterwards. This means that before that number of periods has passed, the node operator has to generate a new KES key pair, issue a new operational node certificate with that new key pair and restart the node with the new certificate.

To find out how long one period is and for how long a key can evolve, we can look into the genesis file. If that file is called mainnet-shelley-genesis.json, we can type

cat mainnet-shelley-genesis.json | grep KES
"slotsPerKESPeriod": 129600,
"maxKESEvolutions": 62,

in this example, the key will evolve after each period of 129600 slots and that it can evolve 62 times before it needs to be renewed.

Before we can create an operational certificate for our node, we need to figure out the start of the KES validity period, i.e. which KES evolution period we are in.

We check the current tip of the blockchain:

cardano-cli query tip --mainnet

    "blockNo": 36914,
    "headerHash": "58df595137e71c0fa65edc99add11704b00e5f163475bd804e4bd59c126bfc9b",
    "slotNo": 8520857

In this example, we are currently in slot 8520857, and we know from the genesis file that one period lasts for 129600 slots. So we calculate the current period by

expr 8520857 / 129600
> 65

With this we are able to generate an operational certificate for our stake pool:

cardano-cli node issue-op-cert \
--kes-verification-key-file kes.vkey \
--cold-signing-key-file cold.skey \
--operational-certificate-issue-counter cold.counter \
--kes-period 65 \
--out-file node.cert